I awoke on Wednesday in what we in the U.S. would consider a large tin shed. As the manager had warned, mice had run amok in the rafters at times during the night. Fortunately, I was able to tune it out after a while. Soon I was off to the Zianpur bazaar to say my goodbyes to the local Grameen staff, the teachers at the high school whom I had always been close to, and others in the community. I felt quite emotional by the time I jumped on the back of a motorcycle and headed to Aricha, where I would get a public bus to Dhaka.
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After a delicious Bengali breakfast of vegetables and paratha, I began a field trip that would ultimately bring me to Kholshi, where I did most of the research for my book Small Loans, Big Dreams. But first I asked to see a Grameen Bank center meeting, to see how the process has evolved. Abdul Malek, the manager, took me to Narandia, a village where there was a borrower meeting that day – this is where loan payments are made, new loans vetted, and other business conducted on a weekly basis.
Malek is still fairly new to this branch, and to driving a motorbike, so our trip through rice fields and the occasional dirt road was a bit of an adventure. I had visited Narandia a couple of times in the 1990s. Then as now the dominant force in this center – a federation of ten groups composed of fifty women clients – was Shaheeda Begum. She was making payments on her two current loans that totaled about $1,000. Only two other women in the center were able to borrow and invest amounts that large. To a much greater extent than was true a decade ago, loans are made on the basis of investment capability, and can vary a lot from client to client. Shaheeda was one of the most savvy businesswomen in the village. But as she would explain to me over the course of an hour, when she began borrowing from Grameen in 1987 her conditions were much humbler than today.
Asif Dowla blogged about his recent White Paper examining the critical role microfinance institutions (MFIs) can play in mitigating the impact of climate change on poor people for the CGAP blog.
As the events at the Copenhagen summit on climate change continue to unfold this week, I think it is important that we look at the relationship between climate change and microfinance.
The microfinance industry has been almost silent about climate change. Even in Bangladesh, where microfinance institutions (MFIs) provide services to more than 30 million households, the industry did not actively participate in the National Adaptation Program of Action (NAPA), which helps less developed countries identify priority activities for responding to climate change.
Royston and I spent the first few hours on Monday back in the Grameen Complex in Dhaka. The most exciting meeting was with two retired Grameen Bank officials -- Fazley Rabbi and, briefly, Abser Kamal – both of whom now work with Grameen Shakti (Energy). Shakti, a sister company of Grameen Bank set up by Dr. Yunus in the early 1990s and that had been led until recently by Dipal Barua, has become a world leader in bringing renewable energy to rural households. We heard how they had passed 300,000 solar home systems installed, and how they do it profitably and at a rate of 13,000 per month at present. (The second most successful program of this kind has reached just over 100,000 installations.)
Alex Counts is President and CEO of Grameen Foundation, and the author of “Small Loans, Big Dreams: How Nobel Prize Winner Muhammad Yunus and Microfinance are Changing the World” (John Wiley & Sons, 2008). Below is Part Two of this journey to assess the state of microfinance with Grameen Foundation partners worldwide.
After a gap of about two years, on December 13, 2009 I returned to Bangladesh – the birthplace of the modern microfinance movement and the country where I spent six of the first nine years after I graduated college. I came here initially driven by naïve idealism – that someone (especially at my tender age!) could catalyze the spread Grameen Bank’s approach beyond the borders of Bangladesh, so it could to become a global (rather than simply national) anti-poverty strategy. As I was to learn, even by the time I arrived in December 1988, that process was under way – a process that was much more complex than I had imagined, and one that has been the focus of Grameen Foundation since it was established in 1997.